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  • 3-Methyladenine | Autophagosome inhibitor
    3-Methyladenine (5142-23-4) inhibits autophagy by blocking autophagosome formation via inhibition of type III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI-3K)1,2. Protects 1321N1 astrocytoma cells against pyocyanin and...

  • Focus Biomolecules cell signaling reagent supplier, chemical structure of AICAR | AMPK activator | CAS 2627-69-2
    Activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Promotes ligand-independent activation of the insulin receptor.1 Promotes skeletal muscle autophagy via activation of FoxO3a.2 Controls smooth muscle cell hyperproliferation in...

  • Antipain 2HCl | Serine and cysteine protease inhibitor
    Serine/cysteine protease inhibitor. Also inhibits some trypsin-like proteases.1 May be used as an additive to prevent proteolytic activity during recombinant protein production in Sf-9 insect cell cultures.2 May be employed...

  • Focus Biomolecules cell signaling reagent supplier, chemical structure of Apicidin | HDAC inhibitor | CAS 183506-66-3
    Apicidin (183506-66-3) is a fungal toxin that is a potent, cell permeable inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDAC's).1 It also displays antitumor properties by inducing changes in p21WAF1/Cip1 and gelsolin gene expression...

  • Bafilomycin A1 | Vacuolar H+ ATPase inhibitor
    Bafilomycin A1 (88899-55-2) is a macrolide antibiotic derived from Streptomyces griseus that is a potent and selective inhibitor of vacuolar H+-ATPases (IC50 = 0.6 – 1.5 nM).1,2 Bafilomycin A1 inhibits autophagy via...

  • Chloroquine phosphate | autophagy inhibitor
    Chloroquine phosphate (50-63-5) is an antimalarial drug. Inhibits autophagy in a variety of cell lines1. Induces cell death in breast cancer cell lines and displays antitumor and antimetastatic activity in mouse models of...

  • Dansylcadaverine | Autophagic vacuole dye
    Dansylcadaverine (10121-91-2) preferentially accumulates in autophagic vacuoles due to a combination of ion trapping and specific interactions with membrane lipids making it a very useful probe for monitoring autophagy.1,2...

  • Daunorubicin HCl | DNA Damaging Agent / Anticancer Agent
    Antitumor antibiotic used in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemias.1 Induces DNA damage by intercalation.2 Induces apoptosis in a variety of cell lines.3 Inhibition of autophagy with chloroquine enhances...

  • Focus Biomolecules cell signaling reagent supplier, chemical structure Dorsomorphin | AMPK inhibitor | CAS 866405-64-3
    Dorsomorphin (866405-64-3) is a potent, selective and ATP-competitive inhibitor of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) (Ki = 109 nM).1 It displays no significant inhibition of ZAPK, SYK, PKCT, PKA and JAK3. It inhibits bone...

  • FK-866 HC; | 658084-64-1 (free base) | Structure | Supplier
    FK866 HCl (658084-64-1 base) is a nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase inhibitor (Ki=0.4 nM). Induces tumor cell apoptosis. FK-866 HCl extends lifespan of human cells. Cell permeable. References/Citations 1) Hasmann et...

  • Fluvastatin Na | HMG CoA reductase inhibitor
    Potent inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase, IC50=40-100 nM.1  Clinically useful, orally active antihypercholesterolemic agent. Inhibits vascular smooth muscle proliferation, IC50=70 nM.2 Displays antineuroinflammatory...

  • Focus Biomolecules supplier, chemical structure of Hydroxychloroquine sulfate | Autophagy inhibitor | CAS 747-36-4
    Hydroxychloroquine sulfate (747-36-4) is a lysosomotropic agent which inhibits autophagy and triggers apoptosis in a variety of cell types.1,2 Augments the anticancer activity of DNA-damaging chemotherapy...

  • Focus Biomolecules cell signaling reagent supplier, chemical structure of ISO-1 | MIF antagonist | CAS 478336-92-4
    ISO-1 (478336-92-4) is an antagonist of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF, a pro-inflammatory cytokine). Displays anti-inflammatory activity. Increases survival in severe sepsis1. Inhibits airway remodeling in...

  • Itraconazole | Autophagy inducer / Inhibits glioblastoma growth
    Itraconazole (84625-61-6) inhibits the conversion of lanosterol to ergosterol via inhibition of the 14-α demethylase, a cytochrome P-450 enzyme.1 Clinically useful antifungal agent. It inhibits the proliferation of...

  • Leu-Leu-OMe HBr | Lysosomal damaging agent
    Leu-Leu-OMe (16689-14-8) is a lysosomal damaging agent (lysosomotropic). It is condensed into a membranolytic polymer via the transpeptidase action of cathepsin C within lysosomes.1,2 May be used to induce a lysosomal damage...

  • Manzamine A | Inhibitor of vacuolar ATPases
    Manzamine A (104196-68-1) inhibits vacuolar ATPases and inhibits autophagy in pancreatic cancer cells1. Suppresses atherosclerosis in vivo2. Manzamine A displays neuritogenic activity3 and suppresses tau...

  • Metformin HCl | Anti-diabetic agent
    Metformin HCl (1115-70-4) is a clinically useful antidiabetic agent. Lowers plasma glucose levels and improves insulin sensitivity. Inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis by activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)...

  • Focus Biomolecules cell signaling reagent supplier, chemical structure MG-132 | Proteasome inhibitor | CAS 133407-82-6
    MG-132 (133407-82-6) is a specific inhibitor of the chymotrypsin-like activity of the 20S proteasome (IC50=100 nM with Z-LLL-AMC as substrate).1 Also inhibits calpain (IC50=1.25 μM).1 Suppresses gastric cancer cell...

  • MHY1485 | 326914-06-1 | Structure | Supplier
    MHY1485 (326914-06-1) is an mTOR activator. Suppresses autophagy by inhibiting the fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes leading to the accumulation of enlarged autophagosomes.1 Increases ovarian follicle development.2...

  • MiTMAB | Dynamin inhibitor
    MiTMAB (1119-97-7) is a dynamin I/II inhibitor targeting the dynamin-phospholipid interaction and inhibiting dynamin GTPase activity with a Ki=940nM.1 Rapidly and reversibly inhibits multiple forms of endocytosis with no...

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