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Koningic acid | Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase inhibitor

Koningic acid (KA; 74310-84-2) is a potent and selective inhibitor of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH).1  Inhibition is irreversible and proceeds via nucleophilic attack of an active site cysteine on the epoxide moiety2, Ki = 1.1 μM for rabbit muscle GAPDH3. KA can selectively kill high-glycolytic cancer cells via glucose dependent ATP depletion.4 Has been used in a predictive model for selective targeting of the Warburg effect, the most prominent hallmark of cancer cell metabolism.5


1) Endo et al. (1985), Specific inhibition of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase by koningic acid (heptelidic acid); J. Antibiot., 38 920
2) Sakai et al. (1991), Identification of koningic acid (heptelidic acid)-modified site in rabbit muscle glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1077 192
3) Sakai et al. (1988), Inactivation of rabbit muscle glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase by koningic acid; Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 952 297
4) Kumagai et al. (2008), Glucose-dependent active ATP depletion by koningic acid kills high-glycolytic cells; Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 365 362
5) Liberti et al. (2017), A Predictive Model for Selective Targeting of the Warburg Effect through GAPDH Inhibition with a Natural Product; Cell Metab., 26 648

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Catalog#  10-3326

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Catalog Number:
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase inhibitor
Chemical Name:
(2’S,5aS,6R,9aS)-1,5a,6,7,8,9a-Hexahydro-6-(1-methylethyl)-1-oxo-spiro[2-benzoxepin-9(3H)2’-oxirane]-4-carboxylic acid
Alternate Names:
Heptelidic acid; BRN5091359; Avocettin
Molecular Weight:
Molecular Formula:
Soluble in water (up to 1 mg/ml) or in DMSO
Physical Properties:
Off-white solid
95% by HPLC
NMR (Conforms)
Storage Temperature:
-20°C (des.)
Stable for 1 year as supplied. Solutions in distilled water or DMSO may be stored at -20°C for up to 1 month.
Shipping Code:
Materials provided by Focus Biomolecules are for laboratory research use only and are not intended for human or veterinary applications.

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