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Metformin HCl | Anti-diabetic agent

Metformin HCl (1115-70-4) is a clinically useful antidiabetic agent. Lowers plasma glucose levels and improves insulin sensitivity. Inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis by activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway.1,2 Displays antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic actions in a variety of cancer cell lines.3,4 Induces autophagy via inhibition of the mTOR pathway. Activates PGC1α and improves mitochondrial dynamics in renal tubular cells.5 Upregulates SIRT1 activity in endothelial cells.6 Neuroprotective and lowers α-synuclein phosphorylation in the Parkinson’s disease MPTP mouse model.7 Lowers body weight by increasing circulating levels of peptide hormone growth/differentiation factor 15 (GDF15).8

1) Zhou et al. (2001), Role of AMP-activated protein kinase in mechanism of metformin action; J. Clin. Invest., 108 1167
2) Shaw et al. (2005), The kinase LKB1 mediates glucose homeostasis in liver and therapeutic effects of metformin; Science, 310 1642
3) Shi et al. (2012), Therapeutic metformin/AMPK activation blocked lymphoma cell growth via inhibition of mTOR pathway and induction of autophagy; Cell Death Dis., 3 e275
4) Rego et al. (2017) Anti-tumor effects of metgormin on head and neck carcinoma cell lines: A systemic review; Oncol. Lett., 13 554
5) Lee et al. (2017) PGC1α Activators Mitigate Diabetic Tubulopathy by Improving Mitochondrial Dynamics and Quality Control; J. Diabetes Res., 2017 6483572
6) Zheng et al. (2012) Sirtuin 1-mediated cellular metabolic memory of high glucose via the LKB1/AMPK/ROS pathway and therapeutic effects of metformin; Diabetes, 61 217
7) Katila et al. (2017) Metformin lowers α-synuclein phosphorylation and upregulates neurotrophic factor in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson’s disease; Neuropharmacology, 125 396
8) Coll et al. (2020), GDF15 mediates the effects of metformin on body weight and energy balance; Nsture, 578 444

Focus Biomolecules cell signaling reagent supplier, chemical structure Metformin HCl | Anti-diabetic agent | CAS 1115-70-4

Catalog#  10-2469

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Catalog Number:
Anti-diabetic agent
Chemical Name:
1,1-Dimethylbiguanide hydrochloride
Molecular Weight:
Molecular Formula:
C4H11N5 HCl
Soluble in DMSO (up to 8 mg/ml) or in Water (up to 16 mg/ml).
Physical Properties:
White solid
NMR (Conforms)
Storage Temperature:
RT (des.)
Stable for 2 years as supplied. Solutions in DMSO or distilled water may be stored at -20° for up to 2 months.
Shipping Code:
Materials provided by Focus Biomolecules are for laboratory research use only and are not intended for human or veterinary applications.

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