Emetine hydrochloride (483-18-1) is one of the active ingredients of ipecac root extract, used as an emetic.1 Induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells via inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling.2 Inhibits Zika and Ebola virus in vitro and in vivo, targeting viral entry and replication by inhibiting viral RNA polymerase and host lysosomal function.3 Also inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication in cells (EC50 for viral load reduction is 0.46 μM).4 A useful agent for inhibiting protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells by virtue of its inhibition of the ribosome 40S subunit.5.
1) Lee et al. (2008), Ipecacuanha: the South American vomiting root; J R Coll. Physicians Edinb., 38 355
2) Sun et al. (2019), Emetine Exhibits Anticancer Activity in Breast Cancer Cells as an Antagonist of Wnt/β-catenin Signaling; Oncol. Rep., 42 1735
3) Yang et al. (2018), Changing cancer survival in China during 2003-2015: a pooled analysis of 17 population-based cancer registries; Cell Discov., 4 31
4) Choy et al. (2020), Remdesivir, Lopinavir, and Homoharringtonine Inhibit SARS-CoV-2 Replication in Vitro; Antivir. Res., 178 104786
5) Cuyas et al. (2015), Anti-protozoal and Anti-Bacterial Antibiotics That Inhibit Protein Synthesis Kill Cancer Subtypes Enriched for Stem Cell-Like Properties; Cell Cycle, 14 3527