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Stem cells are unspecialized cells that can renew themselves via cell division and can differentiate to become tissue- or organ-specific cells. Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent – able to develop into any cell type in the human body. Adult or somatic stem cells are typically multipotent cells that are only able to differentiate into cells related to their tissue of origin. Induced pluripotent stem cells are adult stem cells that have been reprogrammed with various transcription factors to enable them to have embryonic stem cell-like properties. Many types of diseases and conditions that would benefit from the generation/regeneration of tissue are being investigated using stem cell-based therapies.

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Dedifferentiation

Reversine

Adenosine A3 antagonist that induces differentiated cells to a multipotent state

RG-108

DNA methyltransferase inhibitor that enhances reversion of neural cells to a pluripotent state

Trichostatin

Induces dedifferentiation of primordial germ cells into embryonic stem cells via HDAC inhibition

Generation

BAY K8644

L-type Ca2+ channel activator

PluriSln#1

PluriSln#1 is an inhibitor of stearoyl-CoA desaturase

Thiazovivin

Thiazovivin induces stem cell generation

Self renewal/maintenance

SR1

Extends pluripotency of stem cells by antagonizing AhR signaling

SB-216763

GSK3 inhibitor that maintains mouse embryonic stem cells in a pluripotent state

PD173074

Promotes stem cell renewal via inhibition of FGFR

Differentiation

Y-27632 2HCl

Y-27632 is a specific inhibitor of ROCK family kinases

Neurodazine

Neurodazine is an inducer of stem cell neuronal differentiation

CHIR-99021

Potent and selective inhibitor of GSK-3β

SB-431542

SB-431542 is a potent and selective ALK4/5/7 inhibitor

Proliferation

ID-8

DYRK inhibitor that enhances stem cell proliferation and protects pluripotency

ISX9

Promotes neurogenesis by enhancing the proliferation and differentiation of neuroblasts

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